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Sofia ↓
Sofia listen (Bulgarian: София) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Bulgaria, with a population of 1,246,791, and some 1,377,761 in the metropolitan area, the Capital Municipality. It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of the mountain massif Vitosha, and is the administrative, cultural, and industrial centre of the country. One of the oldest capital cities in Europe, the history of Sofia dates back to the 8th century BC, when Thracians established a settlement there. Sofia has had several names in the different periods of its existence, and remnants of the city's millenary history can still be seen today alongside modern landmarks.

History

The Neo-Renaissance National Assembly of Bulgaria edifice in central Sofia
Sofia has been a centre of Christianity since the times of the Roman Empire
A view of Sofia with the snow-capped peaks of Vitosha rising in the background
The Monument to the Tsar Liberator was inaugurated in 1907 Sofia was originally a Thracian settlement called Serdica, named after the Thracian tribe Serdi. Around 500 BC another tribe settled in the region, the Odrysi, known as an ethnos with their own kingdom. For a short period during the 4th century BC, the city was possessed by Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great.
Around AD 29, Sofia was conquered by the Romans and renamed Ulpia Serdica. It became a municipium, or centre of an administrative region, during the reign of Emperor Trajan (98-117). The first written mention of Serdica was made by Ptolemy (around 100 AD). The city expanded, as turrets, protective walls, public baths, administrative and cult buildings, a civic basilica and a large amphitheatre called Bouleutherion, were built. When Emperor Diocletian divided the province of Dacia into Dacia Ripensis (on the banks of the Danube) and Dacia Mediterranea, Serdica became the capital of Dacia Mediterranea. The city subsequently expanded for a century and a half, which caused Constantine the Great to call it "my Rome".
Serdica was of moderate size, but magnificent as an urban concept of planning and architecture, with abundant amusements and an active social life. It flourished during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, when it was surrounded with great fortress walls whose remnants can still be seen today. The city was destroyed by the Huns in 447 but was rebuilt by Justinian and renamed Triaditsa.

Middle Ages

Sofia first became part of the First Bulgarian Empire during the reign of Khan Krum in 809. Afterwards, it was known by the Slavic name Sredets and grew into an important fortress and administrative centre. After a number of unsuccessful sieges, the city fell to the Byzantine Empire in 1018, but once again was incorporated into the restored Bulgarian Empire at the time of Tsar Ivan Asen I.
From the 12th to the 14th century, Sofia was a thriving centre of trade and crafts. It was renamed Sofia (meaning "wisdom" in Greek) in 1376 after the Church of St. Sofia. However, it was called both "Sofia" and "Sredets" until the 16th century, when the new name gradually replaced the old one. [edit] Ottoman rule
Sofia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Murad I in 1382, becoming the capital of the Ottoman province (beylerbeylik) of Rumelia for more than 4 centuries.
In 1610 the Vatican established the See of Sofia for Catholics of Rumelia, which existed until 1715 when most Catholics had emigrated. [1] [edit] Liberated Bulgaria Sofia was liberated by Russian forces in 1878, during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78, and became the capital of the autonomous Principality of Bulgaria in 1879, which became Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1908. During World War II, Sofia was bombed by Allied aircraft in late 1943 and early 1944, as well as later occupied by the Soviet Union. Bulgaria's regime which allied the country with Nazi Germany was overthrown and Sofia became capital of the Communist-ruled People's Republic of Bulgaria (1944?1989).

Culture

The centre of the city is well-known for being paved with yellow Viennese cobblestones
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is one of the largest Eastern Orthodox churches in the world
The architecture of Sofia's centre is mostly typically Central European
The former royal palace at Battenberg Square, now the National Art Gallery
The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences building
Sofia is one of the oldest capital cities in Europe, blending its past and present in a remarkable architectural style. Historic landmarks include the 10th-century Boyana Church (one of the UNESCO World Heritage protected sites), the Alexander Nevski Cathedral (one of the world's largest Orthodox churches), and the early Byzantine Church of St Sophia.
More modern architecture is represented by the Bulgarian National Opera and Ballet, the Ivan Vazov National Theatre, the Rakovski Str theatre district, Slaveykov Square's outdoor book market, and the NDK, which is Southeastern Europe's largest cultural and congressional centre.
Sofia is the see of an Eastern Orthodox and of a Roman Catholic diocese. Sofia has also a huge nightlife scene with many different night clubs, live venues, pubs, mehani (Bulgarian traditional taverns), and restaurants. [edit] Museums Sofia houses numerous museums, notably the National Historical Museum, the Bulgarian Natural History Museum, the Museum of Earth and Men, the Ethnographic Museum, the National Museum of Military History, the National Polytechnical Museum and the National Archaeological Museum. In addition, there are the Sofia City Art Gallery, the Bulgarian National Gallery of Arts, the Bulgarian National Gallery for Foreign Art as well as numerous private art galleries.

Places of special interest

The city also offers many places of special interest such as the Sts. Cyril and Methodius National Library (which houses the largest national book collection and is Bulgaria's oldest cultural institute), the Sofia State Library, the British Council, the Russian Cultural Institute, the Polish Cultural Institute, the Hungarian Institute, the Czech and the Slovak Cultural Institutes, the Italian Cultural Institute, the French Cultural Institute, Goethe Institut, Instituto Cervantes, Open Society Institute, along with Sofia Land, the nearly nine-acre amusement park adjacent to the Sofia Zoological Garden founded in 1888.
Sofia currently enjoys a booming film industry as it is the filming ground of several international film productions. Vitosha Boulevard, also called Vitoshka ranked as the world's 22nd most expensive commercial street ? represents numerous fashion boutiques and luxury goods stores and features exhibitions by world fashion designers. Sofia's geographic location, situated in the foothills of the weekend retreat Vitosha mountain, further adds to the city's specific atmosphere.

Demographics
According to 1999 data,[2] the whole Capital Municipality, with a population of 1,326,377 as of June 2006, had a population density of 917.8, by far the highest in the country. The city itself has a population of 1,203,680.[3] The ratio of women per 1,000 men was 1,114 and the rate of population ageing was 100.3. The birth rate per 1000 people was 7.9 and steadily declining in the last 15 years, the death rate reaching 12.2 and growing. The population was declining by 4.3 per cent. However, considerable immigration to the capital from poorer regions of the country, as well as urbanization, are the reason Sofia's population is in practice increasing.
5.7 people of every one thousand were married and the infant mortality rate was 11 dead babies per 1,000 born alive, down from 18.9 in 1980.
The unemployment is significantly lower than in other parts of the country ? 2.45% of the active population in 1999 and declining, compared to 8.97% for the whole of Bulgaria as of August 14, 2006 (also on the decrease).[4] The large share of unemployed people with higher education, 27% as compared to 7% for the whole country, is a characteristic feature of the capital.

Economy

Sofia is the major centre of Bulgaria's economic life. The manufacturing sector of the economy, represented by over 800 large manufacturing plants, includes metal products (75% of the total output in the country), textiles, rubber and leather goods, printing (50% of output) and electronics (15% of output). Sofia is also the country's financial hub, home to the Bulgarian National Bank, the Bulgarian Stock Exchange, as well as some of the country's largest commercial banks (such as HVB Bank Biochim, Bulbank, DSK Bank and United Bulgarian Bank). Construction, trade and transport are other important sectors of the local economy. Increasingly Sofia is attracting attention as an outsourcing location for Western European and American multinationals. Sofia is also the headquarters for major Bulgarian and international companies operating in Bulgaria and Eastern Europe.
With the fall of communism in Bulgaria in 1989 major international companies previously not present on the Bulgarian market moved in, the majority of them to Sofia. The real estate market in Sofia has skyrocketed in recent years, for the past year or so with about 100% in just 1 year (2005?2006). The construction industry has exploded with new construction sites popping up everywhere. Unemployment is rather low at about 2.5% compared to the Bulgarian average of 8.9% but also to European levels where it is at about 10%.

Hypermarkets

After the fall of communism many international and Bulgarian hypermarket chains have built outlets in the capital. Many more are planned or under construction. Some of the most important chains that are present up to now are: Fantastico (8 outlets)
Billa (6 outlets)
Metro Cash and Carry (2 outlets)
Kaufland (2 outlets)
Praktiker (2 outlets)
Piccadilly (2 outlets)

Transport and infrastructure
The newly renovated Sofia Airport is an important part of the Bulgarian capital's infrastructure
With its well-developed infrastructure and strategic location, Sofia is an important centre for international railway and automobile routes. All major types of transport (except water transport) are represented in the city, which is home to 8 railway stations, the Centre for Flight Control and the Sofia Airport (hub for flag-carrier Bulgaria Air). Three Trans-European Transport Corridors cross the city: 4, 8 and 10. Public transit is well-developed, reliable and important to the city's economy; it is provided by means of underground trains (the Sofia Metro), buses, trams and trolley-buses. There are over 15,000 licensed taxi cabs operating in the city. The subway system became operational in the late 1990s but had limited extend. Heavy traffic near Orlov most (Eagles' Bridge) in the centre of the city With the extensive growth of private automobile ownership in the 1990s the number of cars registered in Sofia has exceeded 500,000 in the past five years. Consequently the traffic (and air pollution) problems of the city have become more severe. Subway expansion plans are set to alleviate the situation when major routes are completed by 2008. Sofia has a unique, very large combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Virtually the entire city (900,000 households and 5,900 companies) is centrally heated, using residual heat from electricity generation (3,000 MW) and gas- and oil-fired heating furnaces; total heat capacity is 4,640 MW. The heat distribution piping network is 900 km long and comprises 14,000 substations and 10,000 heated buidings.

Architecture

After the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in 1878 and the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian monarchy with its capital in Sofia, Knyaz Alexander Battenberg invited architects from Austria-Hungary to shape the new capital's architectural appearance.

Sofia University

Among the architects invited to work in Bulgaria were Friedrich Grnanger, Adolf Vclav Kolř, Viktor Rumpelmayer and others, who designed the most important public buildings needed by the newly-reestablished Bulgarian government, as well as numerous houses for the country's elite. Later, many foreign-educated Bulgarian architects also contributed. The architecture of Sofia's centre is thus a combination of Neo-Baroque, Neo-Rococo, Neo-Renaissance and Neoclassicism, with the Vienna Secession also later playing an important part.
Among the most important buildings constructed in Sofia in the period are the former royal palace, today housing the National Art Gallery and the National Ethnographic Museum (1882); the Ivan Vazov National Theatre (1907); the former royal printing office, today the National Gallery for Foreign Art; the National Assembly of Bulgaria (1886), the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1893), etc.
After the Second World War and the establishment of a Communist government in Bulgaria in 1944, the architectural line was substantially altered. Socialist Classicism public buildings emerged in the centre, but as the city grew outwards, the new neighbourhoods were dominated by many Communist-era tower blocks (panelki) and examples of Brutalist architecture.
After the abolishment of Communism in 1989, Sofia has witnessed the construction of whole business districts and neighbourhoods, as well as modern skryscraper-like glass-fronted office buildings, but also top-class residential neighbourhoods.
Foreign embassies occupy some of Sofia's most beautiful historic houses

Education

In addition to older architecture, Sofia also boasts a number of modern buildings Mall of Sofia, Sofia Tower and the first IMAX cinema in Southeastern Europe.
Top-level football in Sofia
The Church of St Sophia, built in the middle of the 6th century under Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, gave the city its name
The Council of Ministers of Bulgaria in central Sofia
The DZI headquarters in central Sofia
Ivan Vazov National Theatre
The seven-storey house of Baron Gendovich, one of the first high-rise buildings in the city, was completed in 1914
One of the many new office buildings in the capital There are 16 universities in Sofia. The Saint Clement of Ohrid University of Sofia is often regarded as the most prestigious university of Bulgaria, being founded in 1888 and having an incoming class of 14,000 students each year. Other important universities include the National Academy of Arts, the Technical University of Sofia, the University for National and World Economics, Sofia Medical University, the Krastyo Sarafov National Academy for Theatre and Film Arts and New Bulgarian University.
Furthermore, institutions of national significance, such as the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library are located in Sofia along with the American College of Sofia, founded in 1860 and regarded as the oldest American academic institution outside the United States.

Sport
Being the country's capital, Sofia is also the centre of Bulgaria's sport activities, with a large number of sports clubs being based in the city, including most of Bulgaria's primary, such as Levski Sofia, CSKA Sofia, Lokomotiv Sofia and Slavia Sofia. Football is arguably the most popular sport in the city, as well as the whole country, but sports such as basketball and volleyball also have strong traditions in Sofia.
The capital is also home to a large number of sports venues, including the 43,000-seat Vasil Levski National Stadium which hosts most major outdoor events in Bulgaria, Levski Sofia's Georgi Asparuhov Stadium, CSKA Sofia's Balgarska Armiya Stadium and Slavia Sofia's Ovcha Kupel Stadium. Another important sports facility is Universiade Hall, where in turn many indoor events are held.
Sofia applied to host the Winter Olympic Games in 1992 and in 1994, coming 2nd and 3rd respectively. The city was also an applicant for the 2014 Winter Olympics, but was not selected as candidate, coming in at 4th place. In addition, Sofia hosted Eurobasket 1957 and the 1961 and 1977 Summer Universiades, as well as the 1983 and 1989 winter editions. [edit] Mass media
Some of the biggest and most popular telecommunications companies, TV and radio stations, cable television companies, newspapers, magazines, and web portals are based in Sofia. Some television companies and channels include Bulgarian National Television (featuring BNT Channel 1 and TV Bulgaria), and bTV among others. Top-circulation newspapers include 24 chasa, Trud, Sega and others.
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